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FAO/WHO - Codex Alimentarius

Organizacija Ujedinjenih naroda za hranu i poljoprivredu (FAO) i Svjetska zdravstvena organizacija (WHO) osnovale su 1963. godine Codex Alimentarius.

Povjerenstvo Codex Alimentariusa razvija norme, kodekse dobre prakse i smjernice vezane za sigurnost hrane, kako bi se zaštitilo zdravlja potrošača te osigurala pravedna trgovina hranom.

Codex Alimentarius je postala globalna referentna točka za potrošače, proizvođače i prerađivače hrane, nacionalne agencije za kontrolu hrane te općenito, za međunarodnu trgovinu hranom. Codex Alimentarius je potaknuo i aktivnosti na području prehrambene kemije, prehrambene tehnologije, mikrobiologije hrane i mikologije.

Norme, smjernice i preporuke koje razvija Povjerenstvo Codex Alimentariusa su pravno neobvezujući dokumenti, ali kada je to prikladno, Svjetska trgovinska organizacija (WTO) upućuje na Codexove norme pri rješavanju sporova u trgovini hranom ili prehrambenim proizvodima, budući su iste priznate i u okviru Sporazuma o primjeni sanitarnih i fitosanitarnih mjera Svjetske trgovinske organizacije (tzv. SPS sporazum).

Codex-ove norme mogu se podijeliti u dvije glavne grupe: opće i specifične norme. Opće norme uključuju norme za higijenu, označavanje, zaostatke pesticida i veterinarskih lijekova u namirnicama, nadzor uvoza i izvoza i certifikacijski sustav, metode analize i uzorkovanja, aditive u namirnicama, kontaminante, prehranu i hranu za posebne načine ishrane.

Specifične norme uključuju norme za svježe, smrznuto i prerađeno voće i povrće, žitarice i mahunarke, masti i ulja, ribu, meso, šećer, kakao i čokoladu, mlijeko i mliječne proizvode.

Jedno od načela Codex-a obuhvaća analizu rizika od hrane koja je dobivena primjenom suvremene biotehnologije. Ta načela pružaju okvir za analizu sigurnosti, alergenost i nutritivne vrijednosti genetski modificirane hrane te monitoring nakon njenog stavljanja na tržište.

Codex Alimentarius i genetski modificirana hrana

Codex-ova ad hoc Međuvladina radna grupa za hranu koja je proizvod biotehnologije (TFFBT) uspostavljena je na 23. zasjedanju Povjerenstva Codex Alimentariusa 1999. godine s ciljem razvoja odgovarajućih normi, smjernica ili preporuka zasnovanih na znanstvenim činjenicama, analizama rizika i drugim legitimnim čimbenicima koji su važni za zdravlje potrošača i promicanje pravedne trgovine hranom. Tijekom godina ova radna skupina razvila je nekoliko dokumenata koji se odnose na procjenu sigurnosti genetski modificirane hrane, kao što su:

  • Načela analize rizika hrane dobivene uporabom suvremene biotehnologije (2003.)
  • Smjernice za provođenje procjene sigurnosti hrane dobivene uporabom rekombinantne DNA-mikroorganizama (2003.)
  • Smjernice za provođenje procjene sigurnosti hrane dobivene iz rekombinantne DNA-biljaka (2003.)
  • Smjernice za provođenje procjene sigurnosti hrane dobivenih uz pomoć rekombinantne DNA-životinja (2008.)

Važni linkovi, dokumenti i publikacije :

Home page: http://www.codexalimentarius.org/codex-home/en/

Newsletters: http://www.codexalimentarius.org/about-codex/newsletter/en/

Understanding the Codex Alimentarius (WHO/FAO, Third edition, 2006): ftp://ftp.fao.org/codex/Publications/understanding/Understanding_EN.pdf

Codex E-Learning Course: http://www.fao.org/ag/agn/agns/capacity_elearning_codex_en.asp

Procedural Manual (WHO/FAO, Twentieth edition, 2011): ftp://ftp.fao.org/codex/Publications/ProcManuals/Manual_20e.pdf and Update to the 20th edition: ftp://ftp.fao.org/codex/Publications/ProcManuals/UPD_PM20e.pdf

Codex E-Learning Course - "Enhancing participation in Codex activities": http://www.fao.org/ag/agn/agns/capacity_elearning_codex_en.asp

List of Active Codex Committees: http://www.codexalimentarius.org/committees-task-forces/en/

List of Standards: http://www.codexalimentarius.org/standards/list-of-standards/en/

Report of the 34th Session (4-9 July 2011, Geneva): ftp://ftp.fao.org/codex/Reports_2011/REP11_CACe.pdf

Report of the Thirty-first Session (Geneva, Switzerland, 30 June - 4 July 2008): http://www.fao.org/docrep/011/i0420e/i0420e00.htm and ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/i0420e/i0420e.pdf when The ad hoc Codex Intergovernmental Task Force on Foods Derived from Biotechnology has been dissolved

Biotechnology – GM food: http://www.fao.org/ag/agn/agns/biotechnology_en.asp

Detection of GM Food: http://www.fao.org/ag/agn/agns/biotechnology_detection_en.asp

Labelling of GM Food: http://www.fao.org/ag/agn/agns/biotechnology_labelling_en.asp

Codex Ad hocTask Force on Foods Derived from Biotechnology – Reports: http://www.fao.org/ag/agn/agns/biotechnology_codex_en.asp

List of all meetings and reports: http://www.codexalimentarius.org/meetings-reports/en/

Foods derived from Modern Biotechnology (WHO/FAO, Second edition, 2009): ftp://ftp.fao.org/codex/Publications/Booklets/Biotech/Biotech_2009e.pdf

Food Labelling (WHO/FAO, Fifth edition, 2007): ftp://ftp.fao.org/codex/Publications/Booklets/Labelling/Labelling_2007_EN.pdf

Working Principles for Risk Analysis for Food Safety for Application by Governments (WHO/FAO, First edition, 2007): ftp://ftp.fao.org/codex/Publications/Booklets/Risk/Risk_EN_FR_ES.pdf

Safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified animals including fish - Executive summary (2003): ftp://ftp.fao.org/es/esn/food/exec_summary_nov_2003.pdf

Safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified animals including fish - Final report - FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 79 (2003) : ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/006/y5316E/y5316E00.pdf

Genetically modified organisms and aquaculture - FAO Fisheries Circular No. 989 (2003): ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/006/y4955e/Y4955E00.pdf

Thematic compilations/publications: http://www.codexalimentarius.org/standards/thematic-compilations/en/

GM food safety assessment - Tools for trainers (FAO, 2008): ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/012/i0110e/i0110e.pdf

Expert meeting on the application of nanotechnologies in the food and agriculture sectors – Potential Food Safety Implications (FAO/WHO, 2009): http://www.fao.org/ag/agn/agns/files/FAO_WHO_Nano_Expert_Meeting_Report_Final.pdf

Study on the Implications of Asynchronous GMO Approvals for EU Imports of Animal Feed Products: http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/analysis/external/asynchronous-gmo-approvals/summary_en.pdf

Modern food biotechnology, human health and development: an evidence-based study (WHO, 2005): http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/biotech/biotech_en.pdf

Principles for the Risk Analysis of Foods Derived from Modern Biotechnology (CAC/GL 44-2003). Adopted in 2003, amended in 2008: only pdf document available on the internet.

CODEX (2003) Guideline for the Conduct of Food Safety Assessment of Foods Derived from Recombinant-DNA Plants (CAC/GL 45-2003): http://www.codexalimentarius.net/download/standards/10021/CXG_045e.pdf with two new Annexes namely: “Food Safety Assessment of Foods derived from Recombinant-DNA Plants Modified for Nutritional or Health Benefits” and “Food Safety Assessment in Situations of Low-level Presence of Recombinant-DNA Plant Material in Food”

Guideline for the Conduct of Food Safety Assessment of Foods produced using Recombinant-DNA Microorganisms (CAC/GL 46-2003): no link available but the document is available on the internet in pdf version.

Guideline for the Conduct of Food Safety Assessment of Foods Derived from Recombinant-DNA Animals (CAC/GL 68-2008): no link available but the document is available on the internet in pdf version.